Causes and Possible Prevention of Ectopic Pregnancy
Sexually Transmitted Infection
Sexually transmitted disease, especially Chlamydia and Gonorrhea can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). If left untreated this may cause scar tissue, adhesion and chronic inflammation in the fallopian tubes and uterus. Use protection such as condoms during sexual intercourse, especially with new partners to help prevent STI’s.
Tubal Sterilization Reversal
This is a common birth control method for women who thought they were done having children. More and more women are deciding otherwise and having?tubal reversal procedures. Because the fallopian tubes were cut and cauterized initially, then snipped again and sewn back together, this may cause scar tissue, which may narrow or block the tubes. Any type of tubal sterilization poses a risk for ectopic pregnancy, even if you do not want children and have not had a tubal reversal. Of all the unsuccessful tubal ligation procedures that resulted in pregnancy, about 50% resulted in ectopic pregnancy.
Subsequent pregnancies are at risk for ectopic pregnancy following a C-section. This is due to increased risk of scar tissue formation around the reproductive organs which may damage the fallopian tubes.
Surgery to Open Blocked Fallopian Tubes
Women who have already been diagnosed with blocked fallopian tubes can choose to have surgical procedures to re-open them; but these procedures may lead to the development of more scar tissue and adhesion.
Low progesterone levels in pregnant women may potentially indicate an ectopic pregnancy,all the women who experienced ectopic pregnancy had progesterone levels below 22ng/ml. Of all the women whose progesterone levels were below 22 ng/ml, 10% resulted in ectopic pregnancy BUT none of the patients with progesterone levels above 22 mg/ml had a pregnancy resulting in ectopic implantation.
Other research shows that progesterone plays an important role in the function of the fallopian tubes. Specialized cells within the fallopian tubes, called peg cells produce tubular fluid influenced by an increase in progesterone. This fluid is necessary to move the sperm to the ova (egg), nourish both the ova and the sperm and then to help move the fertilized ovum (zygote) along with the cilia (hair like cells within the fallopian tubes) to the uterus for implantation. A failure in proper movement of the fallopian tube may possibly result in ectopic pregnancy.
Progesterone level testing prior to pregnancy may help doctors identify a potential red flag for the development of an ectopic pregnancy in their patients. Should one find that her progesterone levels are low, natural progesterone cream supplementation may be something to look into.?Bio-identical progesterone cream supplementation is a natural way to increase progesterone levels to make sure they are at the right level to sustain a pregnancy and hopefully avoid an ectopic pregnancy.
Smoking cigarettes has been linked to 5 times greater risk for ectopic pregnancy. Holy Smokes! In some women it has been shown that under the influence of nicotine the fallopian tubes contract and spasm. During the spasm the walls of the fallopian tubes collapse and then temporarily stick together, preventing the embryo from passing through for implantation in the uterus.
Fertility medications including clomiphene citrate (Clomid), pergonal and progestin (common in hormonal birth control) put a woman at risk for ectopic pregnancy by altering the ability of the fallopian tube to contract and move the fertilized egg to the uterus. If you become pregnant while on one of these medications, talk to your doctor right away to rule out ectopic pregnancy.