Eat Less and Live Longer?
What can we learn from experiments with animals?
For many years now there has been evidence that reducing the food available to a number of different species (calorific restriction) results in their living longer.
However, this has usually been found in studies with mice or fruit flies in the controlled conditions of a laboratory.
Human beings differ from mice and fruit flies in a number of important respects – and their everyday lives are affected by a wider range of factors than animals in a laboratory. So can eating less help humans live longer?
Studies in monkeys are probably a more valuable source of research. They live longer than laboratory animals and are biologically closer to humans. One study found that rhesus monkeys lived longer if they ate moderately less. However, another study found that eating less made no difference to the monkey’s longevity.
What both studies agreed is that eating less resulted in healthier monkeys. The first study showed lower levels of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and brain deterioration. The second found a statistically significant reduction in cancer and a less significant delay in the onset of diabetes, arthritis and cardiovascular problems.
Might this still work in humans?
Some human population studies suggest a similar picture. For example in Japan, people living on the island of Okinawa and following a traditional lifestyle have some of the longest life expectancy in the world.
Part of this traditional life style involves eating only until you are 80% full which is known as Hara Hachi Bu.
This is only one of a number of potential factors. Exercise, the quality of their largely plant based diet and their social lives are others. However it suggests a possible association between humans eating less and living longer.
Japan’s Okinawa Island has more than 450 people living above the age of 100 and is known as the healthiest place on Earth
Similar positive results have been found when researching members of the Calorie Restriction Society, who consciously choose to eat less – around 1800 calories per day(while consuming at least 100 percent of the recommended daily amounts of protein and micronutrients).
Again though, members of the Society may well be choosing to make a range of healthy choices in their lifestyles e.g. choosing not to smoke or drink alcohol, taking regular exercise and maintaining positive social relationships. This makes it harder to confirm how much difference calorie restriction might be making.
Why calorific restriction might work is still being researched and debated. For example biological, evolutionary and genetic factors have all been suggested.
The risks of eating too little
Eating less may help us live longer but it is important to ensure we get the right quality and quantity of food.
Anorexia illustrates what can happen if people eat too little. Anorexics are at increased risk of cardiovascular problems, coronary heart disease, damaged bones, anaemia, kidney failure and liver damage.
Simply being seriously underweight (presumably linked to eating less) can limit longevity.
Life span or health span?
How long we live isn’t the only issue. How long we stay healthy (rather than spending years burdened with chronic illness) is another.
Whether or not eating less adds years to our life, most evidence suggests it is a healthy option, reducing the risk of a range of chronic illnesses.
How much we eat and its nutritional value is one factor potentially affecting human longevity.
Other factors include how much exercise we take, our genes, whether we smoke or drink a lot of alcohol, our occupation and interests, our personality and our social life.
However, eating too much or too little is bad for our health. It could make us more susceptible to chronic illness - and may even knock years off our lives.
If we are aiming to eat less we need to ensure we eat a healthy diet, to get enough vitamins, minerals and nutrients.